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Daniel Real

Dr. Adriane Ivey
English 101 Expository Writing
9 December 2007.
The Students, Religion, and Teachings of Emory
Connecting Emory to Colleges Then and Now

Given the multitude of issues such as course selection, diversity, discipline, and countless others, surrounding any single university, let alone universities as a whole, making any broad and encompassing analysis seems impossible. But by looking at the larger tapestry through an understanding of the individual threads, one is able to comprehend many complicated topics. It is with this larger picture that this essay will concern itself. I wish to bring three threads of this tapestry into the weave. My topics were chosen based on the research done on a letter written by Warren Akin Candler to his brother in 1897, discussing the rioting that had occurred on campus in late April of that year. First, I will compare the behavior and daily life of a contemporary undergraduate to that of an undergraduate in a nineteenth century college, and at Emory in particular. Second, I wish to discuss the founding of Emory as a Methodist institution and the effects there in. Finally, I will look at the idea of academic freedom, both at Emory and several other key colleges throughout America, and how Germany's ideas of Lehrfreheit and Lemfreiheit influenced American campuses.

The contemporary image of the nineteenth century student is one of dignity, elegance, and civility. However, I wish to discuss primarily the disciplinary aspect of a student's daily life. With more time I would also have liked to explore living arrangements, extra curricular activities and Core disciplinary material. A large amount of information is available in the Emory

yearbooks and course catalogs on just such information, however due to a lack of time I, unfortunately, am not able to cover such information in any satisfactory manner. There are numerous writings on student discipline, or lack thereof, in the 1800's. Today we imagine earlier students attending classes in suit and tie, always taking care to use proper English. Their serious faces seem to establish an air of formality and order not found in students today. However this is far from the reality of their behavior. Instead disorder and general havoc were commonplace: "Colleges of the early republic were besieged by student riots and disorder" (Hessinger 239). The college life of the late 1800's was not nearly as prim and proper as photos would have you believe.

When one looks at the history of colleges as a whole, there are some common threads that run up to the development of the contemporary college. Among these threads is the problem of disobedience. This problem was especially true in American colleges, which struggled to find students. The risk of seeming rule-burdened was too great for many colleges. For American colleges, an independent education and a minimum of rules was a way to differentiate themselves from their European, and particularly British, counterparts. This belief in an independent education was a result of the progressive mentalit"é" surrounding the American Revolution. How could America, the land of the free, impose a limiting set of rules upon its brilliant minds of the future? The idea of a prestige-biased hierarchy seemed out of place in a new democracy. How could one gain advantage in a democracy just by being born into it? That smacked of the old monarchy America had just rebuffed. As a result, students were treated as equals to their faculty: "the in loco parentis patriarchal ideal was badly outdated," says Hessinger (239). The idea of an independent education was vital to the new republic. American leaders,

collegiate and otherwise, believed that "through education a man would know his rights and understand the rights of others" (237). How were collegiate leaders to balance the vital need for higher education with a less then ideal prejudice against traditional rules?

Colleges soon found themselves with uneducated, disruptive students who caused more problems then [sic] they were worth. Faced with such disorder, colleges were forced to expel numerous students at a time, usually due to rioting, dueling or similar disorders. As a result, a system of meritocracy was eventually developed to counter the student disorder that college officials believed "was nurtured in students' propensity to form horizontal bonds of sympathy and loyalty" (240). By implementing a merit-based system, Colleges hoped to break these horizontal bonds which prevented students from being disciplined effectively. The University of Virginia had just such an instance of student solidarity when, after less than a year of operation, "sixty-five students (more then half the student body) presented a joint resolution to the faculty in which they attested their allegiance to one another, refusing to testify against each other in any prospective investigation" of the violent confrontation between fourteen students and two professors (241). This same sort of solidarity can be seen at Emory College when Candler writes, "This week we have been investigating the workers as well as authorities are able who have no subpoena power to secure their testimony."

Clearly there has been a fundamental shift in the mentality of the college student. We can now see the implications of implementing a merit-based system. Student politics have become much more cut throat, with a tremendous amount of importance being placed upon the grade received, and consequently with a person's status in a merit based society. The same student-body governments that refused to testify in the nineteenth

century now sit in judgment of their fellow students.

Before leaving the topic of daily life at Emory I wish to discuss the state of race relations at Emory during this period. Emory College was certainly not progressive during the 1800's. W.A. Candler is known for his segregationist beliefs, doing his best to keep the college from integrating for as long as possible. We know from other letters that a boy was expelled for being found in a room alone with a black woman, presumably engaging in sexual activity. The boy was expelled not so much for sleeping with a woman, but because the woman was black. It is ironic though, that despite this reaction, Emory was relatively progressive in Asian relations; inviting Koran [sic] and Chinese exchange students to the campus. Today Emory has a healthy diversity of ethnicities within both its faculty and student body, an improvement for which I am sure we can all be grateful.

There were several ways in which Emory University, then Emory College, resembled the typical nineteenth century university; but there are also many ways in which it differed. For example, the contents of William A. Candler's letter makes [sic] it clear that disorder and disobedience among the students was a problem; however, Candler's letter also suggests a religious dilemma that was unique to the Methodist universities established before the civil war. Emory College was only the sixth such institution established by the Methodist church (104 Tewksbury), "opened on the promise of interest not yet earned on subscriptions not yet collected" (57 Westmeyer). Emory's founding as a Methodist institution would have a profound effect on everything from the rules governing the campus, to the activities governing daily life, and especially impacted what types of people were attracted to the campus.

The Methodist church was late to set up collegiate institutions because the church's evangelical roots did not support the principles of higher education, even for their minister. The Methodist Church was prejudiced against higher education as a whole: "In the Book of Discipline of 1784, it was stated that 'gaining knowledge is a good thing, but saving souls is better'" (Tewksbury 103). However, after the first Great Awakening in the mid 1700's, and especially the second Great Awakening in the early 1800's, the Methodist church found itself with a majority of uneducated members and lay preachers. It was not until the 1830's that a push for a more educated ministry led Methodist leaders to endorse the foundation of colleges with the expressed purpose to educate the Methodist clergy (103). By looking at the course catalogues of early Emory College, we can see how the college catered to the Methodist minister, offering discounts and tailor made courses. In the span of three decades, the Methodist church was able to construct thirty-four universities distributed widely across the United States. Emory College would be the sixth such institution founded on December 10, 1836, quickly followed by Weslyan College in Macon, Georgia just thirteen days later. Lagrange Female College, founded on January 15, 1847, was the last Methodist university established in Georgia during the time before the Civil War (104).

Much of the American higher education system can be traced back to Germany where the ideas of Lehrfreiheit and Lernfreiheit were originated (xii Westrneyer). Paul Westmeyer defines these two terms in his book An Analytical History of American Higher Education writing: The essential freedom to discover new information, to do research, known as Lehrfreiheit, is one of these influences that is still profoundly visible here.. . . Actually, the Lehrfreiheit was the idea that new knowledge was valuable whether or not it made a

contribution to everyday life; the counter part for students was Lernfreiheit, the freedom to learn what one desired. (Xii)

The impact the German system had on the first American colleges cannot be understated, "between 1818 and 1914, over 10,000 American scholars had attended German universities" (102). Again, Emory was late in picking up the trend. In 1897 courses were still laid out for students. Rather then [sic] allowing them the ability to choose which courses to take, a student would choose which discipline of study they wished to pursue and then take the predetermined courses. I believe this old structure was retained because of the strong connections to the Methodist church. Emory was originally established to educate ministers for the church; there was no need for doctoral programs, and there was little desire to expand the frontiers of knowledge. It would not be until Emory College became Emory University that it would begin the process of educating students for the sake of education.

This paper is a result of studying a letter written by Warren Akin Candler to his brother. I wish to briefly discuss the decisions in editing that letter. My partner and I chose to make as few changes to the letter as possible. It was difficult because we included items like letterhead in the transcription. This makes formatting a real challenge. We also wished to preserve the small edit that Candler made to his letter, however we are still unsure how to tag this difference. Fortunately, an image of each page of the letter will eventually accompany the document.

Emory has grown from a small Methodist college outside of Atlanta into one of the top ranked colleges in the nation. Its history is part of a larger movement towards higher education in America. Discipline remains a problem, though surprisingly things may have improved on this particular front, considering that there are few riots on campus. Emory's ties to the Methodist church have, for the most part, been severed although there are still some who wish to restore

this bond. Emory has certainly made great progress in becoming a full university focused on expanding the frontiers of knowledge. And at its core still stand the student body, changed in appearance and behavior, but still the focus of an effort to educate.

Works Cited

Hessinger, Rodney. "The Most Powerful Instrument of College Discipline': Student Disorder and the Growth of Meritocracy in the Colleges of the Early Republic." History of Education Quarterly 39.3 (1999): 237-262. America: History & Life. EBSCO. Hoke O'Kelley Memorial Library, Oxford, GA.

Tewksbury, Donald G. The Founding of American Colleges and Universities Before the Civil. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1932.

Westmeyer, Paul. An Analytical History of American Higher Education. 2nd. Springfield, Il: Charles C Thomas: Publisher, LTD., 1997.

Patrick Jamieson

English 101 - Dr. Ivey
December 10, 2007
Early Roots in Modern Education

In a small town forty miles east of what would eventually become Atlanta, Emory College laid down its roots as an institution based on the ideals of Methodist education. The college would expand over the next few decades, eventually moving to suburban Atlanta and become a university with rich foundations in research and scholarship. Despite this move, the true history and character of Emory remain at Oxford. In this small town, it was Rev. Warren Candler who led Emory during the turn of the century as its distinguished President. Candler was an honors graduate of Emory College in 1875, and despite his young age, he was licensed to be a preacher and was later admitted to the North Georgia Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South ("Candler Biography"). Candler led Emory through times of great hardship and tremendous change. The "Oxford Experience" project is intended to highlight and analyze important pieces of Emory's history (mostly handwritten letters and journals) in order to better understand what life was like in earlier times. The "Oxford Experience" focuses on leaders, visionaries and exceptional students of Emory from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. My part of this project focuses on a letter written by Rev. Candler to his brother, who can be reasonably assumed to be Asa G. Candler, the founder of the Coca-Cola Company and an Emory Philanthropist. The letter details a weekend of mayhem on the campus in which Candler discusses his feelings towards those involved as well as what happened. However, the letter does more than simply recap a bad weekend on the campus to Candler's brother it exemplifies the spirit and history of

American education around the turn of the century. Emory's rich history as well as Warren Candler's immense contributions to the school are all evident from this letter. In addition, learning about a specific student mentioned in Candler's letter better highlights - student life at Emory during the time.

Warren Candler was a unique man who served Emory very well during his tenure as President. Candler entered Emory College in 1875, and soon after, became a "dynamic and highly successful revival preacher." ("Candler Biography"). Candler practiced a "strenuous, emotional evangelism" which in turn produced "mass conversions" ("Candler Biography"). He was a leader of '"New Puritanism,'" a movement that was prominent in the South in the 1880's which emphasized old-doctrines and the bible's inspiration ("Candler Biography"). Candler was soon elected President of Emory College where he brought his strict Methodist philosophy with him. According to historian Henry Morton Bullock in his book A History of Emory University, "[t]rue to his life before and since, [Candler's] presidency was characterized by a series of definite changes arrived at with directness and speed. There is practically no record of his underlying educational philosophy. It must be assumed that his educational theories were in the main those of the orthodox classical and religious mold of his day" (Bullock 220). Candler was a man deeply committed to his faith--he wrote numerous books and articles in support of the Methodist Church and religious based education. Candler argues in his 1904 book Great Revivals and the Great Republic that a new "Great Awakening" will occur in America, one that will be "a revival of religion--not a political reform nor a philanthropic scheme of social amelioration" ("Great Revivals and the Great Republic" 313). Candler also had many thoughts about the South and its place with education. His

thoughts show the poor state of educational facilities in the South but, at the same time, forecast the greatness that Emory would have later in the health-sciences field. "Why should not men and women in Atlanta and Georgia and the South unite to make in this city an institution for research that will further learning and extend opportunities to the poor bring [sic] young men of our section?" Candler writes in his essay "A Case Which Both Honors and Humiliates the South" ("Emory Bulletin" 11). He continues to write that the South "produces great minds, but they must leave [the South] to find the advantages which they should have" ("Emory Bulletin" 11). Later in his life Candler would be incredibly active in foreign ministry and make over twenty trips to Cuba, where he attempted to form a native ministry. In addition, Candler visited the Orient and Korea on several missions ("Candler Biography").

The first thing I noted when beginning to research the actual image of the letter and transcribe it into a text document was the complexity of Candler's handwriting which made it often very difficult to read. I suspect that this could indicate a certain urgency of the letter Candler was writing to his brother Asa ("Candler Letter" 1). The two brothers wrote many letters to each other and their correspondence is extensive. Many examples of their correspondence are available in the Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library (MARBL) at the Robert W. Woodruff Library of Emory University, Since the two brothers were so close, they could talk candidly about issues such as the one Warren is writing about. After I saw the original letter at MARBL and not the scanned version, his writing became much clearer. Most of the words I had trouble reading that did not appear legible could be reasonably inferred from the context of the sentence. Candler initially begins describing the mayhem that occurred on campus. "Bonfires were kindled

on the campus, bombs belonging to the contractor of the new building were burned, pistols were fired," Candler writes ("Candler Letter" 1). The most perplexing and unexplained element of Candler's letter comes on the third page when Candler refers to a student, "Albert", who was involved in the incident despite his belief("Candler Letter" 3). This person was the subject of much of my research and led me to many different sources. The way that Candler mentions Albert immediately made me think that he was a very well-thought-of student and someone who would not be characteristically involved in such mayhem. In addition, I always had views of students from this time period being very prim and proper. It is hard to imagine so many students being involved in such actions. Emory College was a small, regional, Methodist school during this time period; the thought of a student not being incredibly straight laced makes for very interesting research.

I began this research the most logical way possible; utilizing Emory's yearbooks from this time period. The Zodiac would have been an excellent first step if they completely spelled out a student's first name instead of abbreviating their first and middle names. The only students who received their full name in the yearbook were the seniors, This dilemma made finding "Albert" far more difficult. In addition, the supplemental materials I looked at, including the Alumni Directory as well as the Catalogue, provided me with the same problem. Beginning with the 1897 seniors I found one student named Albert Dozier Kean, a well-esteemed member of the class of 1897 ("The Zodiac," 1897). He was active in many clubs and organizations and all-in-all appeared to be a good student. This is part of the reason why I found Albert Kean to be very fitting of the student Candler describes in his letter. Candler does expresses a sense of fondness

towards this student, noting that he "had not supposed Albert had participated in it but today he confessed to me what he had to do with the disorder on the campus" ("Candler Letter" 3-4). I was not satisfied with Albert Kean fitting the profile of the "Albert" described in Candler's letter however, because there was no additional information about him that would lead me to believe he was involved. My biggest question at this time was whether or not there would be disciplinary records, since the letter mentions that Albert would be suspended for two weeks.

Upon further research, through the Special Collections in MARBL as well as the 1898 Zodiac, I was able to find another Albert who better exemplified the profile. Albert Danner Thomson was an 1898 graduate of Emory College, a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity, a forward on the Basketball team, participant in the pentathlon contest and a center-fielder for the baseball team ("The Zodiac" 1898). Thomson was very close to Warren Candler; he accompanied Candler on his travels to Japan and Korea and jpet [sic] close correspondence with him. Many examples of this correspondence can be found in the Special Collections in MARBL. In addition, Thomson's later life was filled with success; he was a powerful Atlanta businessman, served on the City-Council of Atlanta and as Executive Secretary to Mayor Asa Griggs Candler. ("Albert Danner Thomson Papers"). Thomson's close connection with the Candler family is very evident and these connections led me to believe that Albert Thomson is the person mentioned by Candler. I visited the Special Collections at MARBL and found the exact proof that I needed that Albert Thomson was the student described in the letter. Through the "Albert Danner Thomson Papers," a five box collection of various letters, newspaper clippings, photographs, travel documents and even report cards, I was able to begin searching for

letters or disciplinary records that would prove Thomson to be part of this conspiracy. I found a letter from William S. Thomson, Albert Thomson's father, dated May 3, 1897. William Thomson was a successful lawyer from Atlanta. The letter begins saying, "Dr. Candler wrote to me Saturday, but I was very busy and did not have a chance to read his letter until after I got home. It disrupted me greatly although he wrote about you very kindly, and commended your truthfulness....I have written Dr. C by this mail, asking him to be as lenient as he can. I want to do what is best, but I cannot think what is best" (Thomson 1). This provides exact proof that Thomson's son Albert was directly involved in the mayhem on campus. However, Albert's father does not appear to be angry at all-- he appears more disappointed. He continues by saying, "I accept your statements and commend you for telling the truth. You are right in your thinking that I looked after you....If you have to leave Oxford, I think its better that you should come home, but if you would feel better to go over to Covington, you have my [blessing]" (Thomson 2). This letter was the definite proof I needed to know the identity of Albert as well as to give me some insight into his life and character. Through my additional research through his papers, journals, photographs and other materials I was able to see what a successful life he lived. He had traveled to the Far East with Warren Candler on several trips and wrote extensive travel diaries describing his exotic journeys. Knowing who the mysterious "Albert" was from Candler's letter helps better explain college life. This tiny piece of information better explains what a college student was like from this time period, what types of disciplinary action were taken towards students like this and why crimes like this occurred. Despite the sometimes difficult handwriting, Candler's letter was able

to come together has a complete statement on what occurred at the Emory campus more than a century ago.

Through Candler's letter, the overall history and character of Emory are well explained. In addition, the overall philosophies of American education in the nineteenth century are noted. Emory's transition from a small Methodist college in rural Georgia to a major research institution did not come without hard work. "The development of Emory University," Historian Henry Bullock writes, "reflects many of the major trends in higher education in the South ruing [sic] the last hundred years.. ..Since the Civil War the institution has typified and not infrequently has led the struggle of the South to provide for itself indigenous college and University education. Throughout, Emory has maintained and adjusted its work in the light of a constant purpose to build Christian character" (Bullock 7). Education in America was also growing at an exponential rate; In 1880 4,450 Bachelor's degrees were awarded and just a decade later in 1890 6,324 Bachelor's degrees were awarded according to Robert Geiger's essay "The Crisis of Old Order: The Colleges in the 1890s" (Geiger 273). "The anomalous situation began to change," Geiger writes, "in the 1890s as the number of college graduates more than doubled....This vision of the place and purpose of college could be embraced by university presidents, alumni supporters, and collegians themselves. In the opening decades of the new century, it became the predominant image of American higher education" (Geiger 275). Across the country, colleges and universities were growing at a fast pace and more and more people were beginning to attend them. In addition, Emory was evolving to the changing standards of higher education at the time. In 1892, significant changes were made to the curriculum under Candler's presidency. According

to Bullock's book, "In that year the old bachelor of science and English literature was dropped, and full four year courses of study leading to bachelor of science and bachelor of philosophy degrees were introduced" (Bullock 221). It is incredibly interesting that Candler saw no place for industrial or business courses in the college. Courses in bookkeeping and telegraphy were not present at Emory until 1889 (Bullock 222). Around this same time, the Emory Law School was being formed and graduates were given a bachelor of laws degree (Bullock 222). In addition, Candler was very interested in having a school which could train preachers. Candler had an incredible outlook on Emory and remained positive. "A College sustained by such a constituency," he writes in The Emory Phoenix, "can never die. Emory College is made deathless because encompassed by arms of love, for there is nothing so enduring as love" ("Emory Phoenix" 103). It can be assumed that students and professors had a difficult time in college during these early days of Emory. Students now can say that forty miles from Atlanta is not far at all, but in 1897 forty miles was an incredible distance. Warren Candler's presence in Atlanta on this weekend signifies that he was there for a very important event. In the era before Henry Ford's "Model-T" and other mass-produced automobiles, transportation for this long of a distance was very difficult. The classes also appeared to be very rigorous. A look at Albert Thomson's report card shows his course schedule in 1897 to contain sixteen different courses he had to attend including moral philosophy (taught by Dr. Candler), Calculus, English Literature and Declamation. Thomson had six absences from moral philosophy and twenty-two from chapel, showing he was far from perfect ("Report of the Standing"). At the beginning of my research for this project I had assumed college students were far different in 1897 then they are now.

However, now that I have seen the life of several students, and learned about the character and history of education during this time period I am able to see many similarities.

Emory has certainly evolved from a small, regional, Methodist school to a nationally known research institution which consistently ranks among the best in the country every year. Despite the major changes that Emory has gone through over the past century, including a move to Atlanta, extreme growth in faculty and students, development of graduate and professional programs and a move from religious affiliation, the character that was present in 1897 is still present today. Warren Candler was a man who helped bring Emory into new times. As education was changing at the turn of the century, Candler was able to foresee these changes and help Emory move into the forefront of education. He had great goals for Emory to become renown in many different aspects and help bring it to the level it is at today. His letter serves as a vital primary source to learn about what life was like during this time period. One of the most important parts of his letter is his willingness to forgive Albert for what he did on the campus. Researching Albert led me to many different avenues and gave me a deeper I understanding of college life during this time period. Albert iyà a prime example of a college student at Emory around the turn of the century. While every student did not start fires or set off bombs, many got in trouble on occasion and many were heavily involved in school activities. Albert Thomson went on to be an incredibly successful businessman in Atlanta, and his success was in part to Warren Candler's guidance while Thomson attended Emory. His close connections with the Candler family are evident throughout his papers and collections at MARBL. The primary purpose of the "Oxford Experience"

project is not simply to type a letter so it can be searched on the internet, rather it is a learning experience; a project designed to give students the opportunity to research and understand life during this time period. Utilizing Candler's letter as well as many other sources, I feel that I have been able to better understand college life, the history and character of Emory, as well as an overall history of American Education during this time period.

Works Cited

Albert Danner Thomson Papers. Atlanta: Special Collections, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Emory University.

Bullock, Henry M. History of Emory University. Nashville: Parthenon P, 1936.

Candler, Warren A. "A Case Which Both Honors and Humiliates the South." Bulletin of Emory University. Atlanta: Emory University, 1918.

Candler, Warren A. Ed. Herbert S. Phillips. The Emory Phoenix. May 1897.

Candler, Warren A. Great Revivals and the Great Republic. Nashville: House of the M.E. Church, South, Lamar & Barton, Agents, 1924.

Candler, Warren A. Letter to Brother. 30 Apr. 1897. Special Collections, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Emory University, Atlanta.

Geiger, Robert. "The Crisis of the Old Order." The American College in the Nineteenth Century. Nashville: Vanderbilt UP, 2000.

Report of the Standing: January to June, 1897. Emory College. Special Collections, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Emory University, 1897.

Students Of Emory College, comp. The Zodiac. Atlanta: Franklin Printing & Company, 1898.

Students Of Emory College, comp. The Zodiac. Atlanta: Franklin Printing & Company, 1897.

Thomson, William S. Letter to Albert Thomson. 3 May 1897. Albert Danner Thomson Papers. Special Collections, Manuscript, Archives, and Rare Book Library, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Emory University, Atlanta.

"Warren Akin Candler." Dictionary of American Biography. Biography Resource Center. Robert W. Woodruff Library, Emory University, Atlanta. 13 Nov. 2007.

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[Letter from Warren Akin Candler to William Sydnor Thomson, April 30, 1897]

Emory College,
President's Office
Oxford, Ga.,
April, 30 1897
My dear Brother:

I am pained thus to send you this letter

On last Thursday April and Friday nights whilst I was in Atlanta there was serious disorder here. Bonfires were kindled on the campus, bombs belonging to the contractor on the new building were burned; pistols were fired; Dr. Moore's fencing was
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damaged, and Dr. Haygood's professional sign was pulled down & carried to Prof. Jarrell's

One of the causes which prevented my recessing in Atlanta over Sunday as I greatly desired to do [added] was a telephone message advising my return here on the account of this disorder.

This week we have been
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investigating the matter as well as authorities are able who have no subpoena power to secure their testimony

I had not supposed Albert had participated in it but today April 30. he confessed to me what he had to do with the disorder on the campus. He denied having had any part in
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other parts of the disorder. He has been suspended for two weeks and demerited.

Others who added to the offense of disorder, falsehood before the faculty when questioned, have been dismissed.

I write the facts to you with a heavy heart. If while I am away
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pleading for Christian education buys whom I implicitly trusted can bring dishonor to the institution I feel like laying down the work as a vain and impossible task. Yet I am conscious of doing the best I know how to make Christian men and I must leave my failure in God's hands.

With deep regrets. I am Yours Truly,
W.A. Candler

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